Climate change, biodiversity and certification
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) -commonly called “Earth Summit in Rio”- released three international treaties. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification, all three together known as the Rio Conventions. The three Rio conventions are interrelated. Climate change affects biodiversity and desertification: the more intense and the larger climate change and its scope, the greater the loss of plants and animals, and the more semi-arid drylands around the world will lose vegetation and deteriorate themselves.

The climate has always varied. The climate change issue is that in the last century the pace of these changes has accelerated abnormally, to such an extent that affects the life of the planet. For the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Climate change is defined as a significant statistical variation in the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer). This may be due to natural internal processes or external forcing changes, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.”

On the other hand, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate (UNFCCC), Article 1, defines 'climate change' as: 'a change of climate attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.' UNFCCC distinguishes between “climate change” attributed to human activities altering the atmospheric composition and 'climate variability' attributed to natural causes.